Posts Tagged ‘weight loss’
A recent systematic review of randomized clinical trials examining the efficacy of calcium intake in the management of weight and body fat in overweight and obese subjects was published by Onakpoya et. al., in Nutrition Reviews. This analysis found a small, significant effect of calcium in reducing body weight and body fat in studies at least six months long. A subgroup analysis of premenopausal women found significantly greater weight loss in the calcium group versus placebo. Although the effect of calcium on weight loss was statistically significant, the authors question the clinical significance as the enhanced weight loss was not large.
ScienceDaily reports on a new study examining weight loss on a low carbohydrate versus a low-fat diet combined with exercise. Both groups lost weight; however, the low carbohydrate group lost weight faster. Although the low carbohydrate diet was higher in fat, measures of cardiovascular health were not altered by the diet. This work provides additional data indicating that a low carbohydrate, higher fat diet will not negatively affect heart disease risk.
A new study published in the Annals of Nutrition & Metabolism studied the effect of calcium and dairy product intake on modification of body composition in overweight and obese women following a six-week hypocaloric diet. Dairy consumption—and subsequent calcium and protein intake—was inversely correlated with body mass index (BMI) at the end of the intervention period. The women whose initial calcium intake was below the 50th percentile and who achieved a reduction in BMI above the 50th percentile also increased their calcium intake the most. These results support the notion that correcting an inadequate calcium/dairy food intake can enhance weight management when consuming a calorie-restricted diet.
A study done by Danit R. Shahar and co-workers, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, indicates that higher calcium intake and increased serum vitamin D levels as a result of dairy consumption are independently related to diet-induced weight loss. They found that an increase in one standard deviation in dairy calcium intake was associated with an increased likelihood of weight loss of greater than 4.5 kilograms in the preceding six months. Multiple mechanisms have been proposed on how dairy foods may enhance weight/body fat loss when dieting to lose weight.
A large, prospective study conducted in Europe provides food for thought as we emerge from the holidays to counsel clients about losing weight.
European researchers analyzed data from 89,432 men and women from six cohorts and five countries enrolled in the EPIC (European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition) study to assess the association between the amount and type of dietary fat and subsequent weight change over time (3.7 to 10 years). Country-specific food-frequency questionnaires were used to assess baseline intake of total, saturated, polyunsaturated and monounsaturated fats.
The average total fat intake of participants ranged between 31.5 percent to 36.5 percent of calories, and the average annual weight change was 109 gm/year in men and 119 gm/year in women.
“No significant association was observed between fat intake (amount or type) and weight change,” the authors report. They conclude, “These findings do not support the use of low-fat diets to prevent weight gain.” They add, “Our findings lend support to the scientific view that promoting low-fat diets may not offer the optimal approach for tackling the obesity epidemic and might potentially divert attention from the recommended goals of reducing the dietary total energy content or promoting greater physical activity as set out in the current U.S. national dietary guidelines.”